Friday, 27 December 2013

A Chemical Tripod

Tripod immobilization of ligands is a simple and flexible strategy for creating new heterogeneous catalysts

A Chemical Tripod

Friday, 20 December 2013

Sustainable Synthesis of Phenols

Phenols synthesized within a few minutes in water with a recyclable deep eutectic solvent
Read more

Saturday, 14 December 2013

Baeyer-Villiger oxidation

Baeyer-Villiger oxidation

Also known as: Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement

Schematic of the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. Reagents: ketone, peroxyacid. Product: ester. Comments: The more electron rich group migrates to the oxygen.
The Baeyer-Villiger oxidation is an organic reaction used to convert a ketone to an ester using a peroxyacid (such as mCPBA). The reaction of the ketone with the acid results in a tetrahedral intermediate, with an alkyl migration following to release a carboxylic acid. The more electron rich R group migrates to the oxygen in this concerted process, allowing for accurate prediction of the stereochemistry of the product.[1]


Mechanism of the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. Attack with another molecule of peroxyacid followed by deprotonation. As a positive charge is forming on the labeled oxygen (as the carbonyl group abstracts a proton from the acid), the more electron rich R group migrates to the oxygen to stabilize it.



Baeyer, A.; Villiger, V. Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 189932, 3625–3633.

Tuesday, 10 December 2013

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: A Promoter of Carbon–Halogen Bond Heterolysis

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Angewandte Chemie International Edition

Volume 52Issue 50pages 13298–13301December 9, 2013

Thais Delgado-Abad, Dr. Jaime Martínez-Ferrer, Prof. Dr. Ana Caballero, Dr. Andrea Olmos, Prof. Dr. Rossella Mello, Prof. Dr. María Elena González-Núñez, Prof. Dr. Pedro J. Pérez and Prof. Dr. Gregorio Asensio
Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.201303819

Amazing reaction medium: Supercritical carbon dioxide, with zero dipole moment, lower dielectric constant than pentane, and non-hydrogen-bonding behavior, ionizes carbon–halogen bonds, dissociates the resulting ion pairs, and escapes from capture by the carbocation intermediates at temperatures above 40 °C. These properties allow the observation of carbocation chemistry in the absence of acids.

Friday, 29 November 2013

Thursday, 21 November 2013



The synthesis of aspirin is classified as an esterification reaction. Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acid's hydroxyl group into an ester group (R-OH → R-OCOCH3). This process yields aspirin and acetic acid, which is considered a byproduct of this reaction. Small amounts of sulfuric acid (and occasionally phosphoric acid) are almost always used as a catalyst. This method is commonly employed in undergraduate teaching labs.
Aspirin synthesis.png
Reaction Mechanism
Acetylation of salicylic acid, mechanism

Saturday, 16 November 2013

Here’s an improved synthesis of benzazepines

Benzazepines are heterocyclic chemical compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to an azepinering. Examples include benazeprilfenoldopamlorcaserin and varenicline

Benzazepines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

Benzazepines such as compound 3are intermediates for synthesizing drugs used to treat heart and kidney disorders. Y. Torisawa and co-inventors state that existing methods for preparing the intermediates are inefficient for industrial production because of low yields and purity.
The route they used for preparing 3 is the reaction of chlorotetrahydrobenzazepine 1with bromoaniline derivative 2 in the presence of CO and a Pd–Ph3P catalyst (Figure 1); DBU is 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene. The product is isolated, purified by column chromatography, and recovered in 85% yield and 99.1% purity. The patent contains 1H and 13C NMR, IR, and mass spectroscopy data.

The reaction gives small quantities (≈0.01–0.03 wt%) of four byproducts that are formed by the reaction of 3 with 1. These compounds are easily separated from 3, and their 1H NMR data are reported.
The inventors also describe the synthesis of 2 and several structurally related compounds by routes outlined in Figure 2. The preparation of 2 begins with the condensation of toluidine 4 and benzoyl chloride 5 in the presence of NaOH to form amide 6, isolated in 96.6% yield. In the second step, 6 is brominated in HOAc, and 2 is isolated in 97% yield. Although the purities of 2 and 6 are not reported, both have sharp melting points; 1H NMR data are provided.

Compound 6 can also be used to prepare acid 7 by treating it with (COCl)2 in the presence of AlCl3, and then hydrolyzing the product. The crude acid is isolated, treated with aq NaOH, and recovered in 65.8% yield and 99.4% purity after recrystallization from MeOH.
The reaction of 6 and AcCl in the presence of AlCl3 gives compound 8, isolated in 66.8% yield. The purity is not reported, but the compound has a sharp melting point, and 1H NMR data are given. Oxidizing 8 with NaOCl forms 7, which is isolated in 77.2% yield and 99.8% purity after recrystallization from MeOH.

A key feature of the processes described in this patent is the commercial availability of starting materials 1 and 2. The inventors claim that the processes give the desired compounds in higher yields and purities than existing methods. (Otsuka Pharmaceutical [Tokyo]. US Patent 8,273,735, )

Process for preparing benzazepine compounds or salts thereof
Grant - ‎Filed 1 Sep 2006 - ‎Issued 25 Sep 2012 - ‎Yasuhiro Torisawa - ‎Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
This invention provides a process for preparing benzazepine compounds of the formula (1): wherein X1 is a halogen atom, R1 and ...

Paper | Regular issue | Vol 53, No. 9, 2000, pp.2009-2018
Published online: 
DOI: 10.3987/COM-00-8982
■ A Synthesis of 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepines via Pummerer-Type Cyclization of N-(2-Arylethyl)-N-(2-phenylsulfinylethyl)formamides
Jun Toda, Tsuyoshi Ichikawa, Toshiaki Saitoh, Yoshie Horiguchi, and Takehiro Sano*
*Showa Pharmaceutical University, 3-3165, Higashi-tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan
A construction of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine ring system (7) was achieved via Pummerer-type cyclization of N-(2-arylethyl)-N-2- (phenylsulfinylethyl)formamides (6). This route produced the benzazepines (10) and (11) in six steps starting from readily available 2-arylethylamines (2) and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. 
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